Russia's Central Election Commission previous year voted to stop Navalny from running against Russian President Vladimir Putin, citing a conviction in a fraud case that many consider to be politically motivated.
"I got a toothache, I went to the dentist".
He said he was being taken "somewhere" but did not know where.
The charge, which will be heard by a court at an undisclosed date, could result in a jail sentence of up to 30 days.
Other demonstrations organised by Navalny have followed, most recently on January 28 when he called for Russians to boycott the presidential election on March 18, which he denounces as a sham.
Navalny's appeal against the Central Election Commission's move was rebuffed by the Supreme Court which ruled that the decision to fully ban him from the presidential race is constitutional.
Mr Navalny, a lawyer and anti-corruption campaigner, later wrote that he had been taken to...
Navalny's campaign chief, Leonid Volkov, was also detained Thursday at Sheremetyevo International Airport.
"We want to tear Putin down from his pedestal", Vladimir Milov, an economic adviser and one of Navalny's allies, said in an interview.
Dmitry Borisov was accused of kicking the officer twice in the head during protests called by the anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny that saw tens of thousands of people take to the streets across Russian Federation.